Vietnam social stratification

Furthermore, The discrepancy between official salaries and unofficial incomes 5 means that income criteria is not completely reliable in the Vietnamese context. Because most of the natural resources as well as a large labor pool were located in the North, industrial development was concentrated there, and Hanoi and Haiphong became the country's leading industrial centers.

Social condition of vietnam

A report to the congress urged the party to intensify class struggle in order to combat the corrupt practices engaged in by those who had "lost their class consciousness. The society was further transformed in the nineteenth century by the imposition of French rule, the introduction of Western education, the beginnings of industrialization and urbanization, and the growth of commercial agriculture. In many ways the forces have been complimentary rather than contradictory and conflicting. Reminiscent of the campaign undertaken by communists in China in earlier years, the liquidation of landlords cost the lives of an estimated 50, people and prompted the party to acknowledge and redress "a number of serious errors" committed by its zealous cadres. In the off-season, landowners engaged in moneylending, rice trading, or rice milling. See Festivals and Towns, Villages. Very few had been able to study abroad. Despite the increasing dependence of families, simply for subsistence, on organizations sponsored by collectives and the state, the strongest bond in the society by far was that of family loyalty. The Sixth National Party Congress in December found it necessary to issue a stern warning against opportunism, individualism, personal gain, corruption, and a desire for special prerogatives and privileges. The new economic zones came to be widely perceived as places of internal exile. Her current project examines the emerging middle class in urban Vietnam. In practice, a small-scale bourgeoisie continued to operate in the South's industrial sector with the permission of the state, and, according to an official source, some cadres in the south were exploiting peasants in the tradition of former landowners. Marginalized groups, including residents in remote areas where there are no investment projects, ethnic minorities or former supporters of the defeated South who did not manage to migrate abroad.

Traditional Vietnamese Confucian Social Structure For centuries Vietnamese society was knit together by Confucian norms based on five relationships: the subordination of subject to ruler, son to father, wife to husband, and younger brother to elder brother, and the mutual respect between friends.

Families, villages and lineages have been organized around strict, male-dominated hierarchies with stratification based on relative age, rank, title, degrees and other criteria held in high esteem. The task was admittedly formidable.

According to the party's assessment, from through shortcomings and errors occurred in establishing transition goals and in implementing the party line.

Vietnam social stratification

If they farmed, the work was done by hired laborers who planted, irrigated, and harvested under the owner's supervision. Others, including Buddhism, Catholicism, and minor faiths, were tolerated. They owed their standing more to demonstrations of political acumen and devotion to nationalism or Marxism-Leninism than to educational or professional achievements. While semiliterate themselves, they nevertheless were able to send their children to primary school. While rapid economic development has resulted in growing socio-economic disparities that are demonstrated visibly in everyday life, the concept of class remains problematic and unspoken of. In fact there are important regional and occupational differences between middle earners. French colonial policy that lifted the traditional ban on rice exports at the end of the nineteenth century also attracted new waves of Chinese merchants and shopkeepers seeking to take advantage of the new export market. Landlords and comprador capitalists may have disappeared but in their places were party cadres and state functionaries who were no less status-conscious and self-seeking. For the most part rural Vietnam remains conservative. Once a person passed the triennial examinations he became an accredited scholar or degree holder and was eligible for appointment to the imperial civil service, the most prestigious route to power, status, and wealth. Furthermore, The discrepancy between official salaries and unofficial incomes 5 means that income criteria is not completely reliable in the Vietnamese context. The development of mining and industry between and also introduced a new class of workers.

Many were sent to the countryside to perform manual labor and to help educate a new corps of socialist intellectuals among the peasants. Based on the Marxist principle of class struggle, it involved no less than the creation of a totally new social structure.

vietnamese family hierarchy

They are much more innovative and business-savvy and find themselves in-sync with the capitalist reality. As a result, the Vietnamese people not only were saved from the famine that was looming in the s, but by the late s ownership of goods such as refrigerators, TVs, motorbikes or washing machines, became the norm for urban dwellers.

This group also included workers in a wide range of other service occupations, such as artisans, practitioners of oriental medicine, and small tradespeople.

Confucianism Versus Egalitarianism in Vietnamese Society Confucianism plays a major role in organizing society.

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SOCIETY IN VIETNAM: CONFUCIANISM, HISTORY, SOCIAL STRUCTURES AND COMMUNISM